Skip to main content

Full text of "Solar project description for Alpha Construction Company's single family residence, Canton, Ohio"

See other formats


Z I.2?:QolA12 /I05+ -1*1 /$v 



SOLAR/1034-79/50 



Solar Project 
Description 



ALPHA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY'S 
SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE 

Canton, Ohio 
September 21 ,1979 




u^ 




U.S. Department of Energy 

National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process 
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. 



Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of 
Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. 



Price: Paper Copy S5.25 
Microfiche S3. 00 



Solar/ 1 034-79/50 
Distribution Category UC-59 



SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION 

FOR 

ALPHA CONSTRUCTION COMPANY'S 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE - CANTON, OHIO 



Prepared for the 
Department of Housing and Urban Development 

Under Contract Number 
H-2372 

David Moore 
Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program Manager 

By 

The Boeing Company 
David Beers, Program Manager 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. FOREWORD I 

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 

III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 4 

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 7 

A. General Overview 7 

B. Collector Subsystem 9 

C. Storage Subsystem 17 

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 26 

E. Auxiliary Subsystem 30 

F. Modes of Operation 33 

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 37 

A. The National Solar Data Network 37 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 41 

VI. COST DATA 42 

VII. APPENDIX 44 

A. Glossary 44 

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics 49 



n 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Title Page 

lll-l Site Plan 4 

IV-A- 1 General Overview 7 

IV-B-I Collector Subsystem 9 

IV-B-2 Solar Collector 10 

IV-C- 1 Storage Subsystem 17 

IV-D- 1 Energy-to-Load Subsystem 26 

IV-E-I Auxiliary Subsystem 30 

IV-F-I Controls Diagram 33 

V-A- 1 The National Solar Data Network 38 

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network 39 

V-B-l Sensor and Control Diagram 48 



m 



NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS 

Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a 
specific format. For example, this report for the Alpha Construction Company's 
single family residence project site is designated as SOLAR/ 1 034-79/50. The 
elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration: 



Prepared for the 
National Solar -^- 

Data Program 



Demonstration Site ~^- 
Number 



SOLAR/ 1 034-79/50 



Report Type 
-^~ Designation 



Year 



Demonstration Site Number: Each project has its own discrete number - 1000 
through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites. 

Report Type Designation: 

This number identifies the type of report, e.g., 



Monthly Performance Reports — designated by the numbers 01 

(for January) through 12 (for December); 

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations — designated by 

the number 14; 

Solar Project Descriptions — designated by the number 50; 

Solar Project Cost Reports — designated by the number 60. 



These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical 
Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. 



IV 



I. FOREWORD 

The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the 
Department of Energy (DOE) as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling 
Demonstration Act of 1974. The Department of Housing & Urban Development is 
responsible to DOE for the Solar Residential Demonstration Program. The overall 
goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a 
viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use 
through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. An analysis and 
synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in 
site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar 
Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as: 

o Solar Project Description. 

o Operational Experience. 

o System Performance Evaluation. 

o Monthly Performance Reports. 

Information contained herein for this Solar Project Description report has been 
extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such 
as the project proposal, designer specifications, grantee submittals, manufacturer 
literature, photographs, specific "as-built" data and other project documentation 
available. The remaining reports in this series will utilize the Solar Project 
Description for supporting reference. 



II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

The following are the major solar energy descriptors: 

o Collector Type -- Air, flat plate 

o Freeze Protection -- None required 

o Application — Heating and hot water 

o Storage — Rock and preheater water tank 

o New/Retrofit ~ New 

o Performance Evaluation Instrumentation — Yes 

o Site-Specific Features — Forced air, split system heat pump, 

three stage auxiliary electric resistance heater, and 
auxiliary electric hot water heater 

The solar energy system for a new single family detached residence in Canton, 
Ohio, preheats domestic hot water (DHW) and supplements heating energy for 
2460 square feet of occupied space. The building was designed by Alpha 
Construction Company (H-8104) of Canton, Ohio, and its Rome Aire solar system 
was designed by Solar Energy Products Company of Avon Lake, Ohio. 

The solar energy system is designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the 
space heating and 70 percent of the hot water energy requirements for the home. 

The 432 square feet collector array was fabricated by Solar Energy Products 
Company. The collectors are installed, in a mosaic pattern, on a slanted roof on 
the south side of the house. The 17 SEPCO EF-212 "Rom-Aire" flat plate 
collectors are mounted on the roof, forming an integral part of the roofing. No 
on-site changes are made to the collectors to modify their thermal character- 
istics, or their heat transfer properties. The collector sides and back are 
insulated with 7/8 inch Celotex Thermax sheathing, providing an R-7 insulation 
value. The collector mosaic faces south and is installed at a 37 degree tilt to the 
horizon. 



These collectors utilize air as heat transfer medium and require no freeze 
protection provisions. 

The air thermal storage unit consists of a concrete container filled with 
approximately 38,000 pounds of rocks. The total volume of 400 cubic feet in a 
740 cubic foot container. The concrete walls and floor are insulated with 
preformed styrofoam panels. 

The domestic hot water preheat storage is a 24 cubic foot (80 gal.) tank with 
fiberglass insulation and is located in the basement. An air-to-water heat 
exchanger is installed in the preheat storage loop. The heated air to exchanger is 
supplied from the air thermal storage utilizing a 250 cfm blower. The heated 
water in the exchanger coil is circulated through the preheat storage tank 
utilizing a pump. The heat exchanger loop remains active as long as the 
temperature of the preheat tank is less than 135 F and the temperature in the air 
heat storage tank is greater than the preheat tank temperature. 

The supply to the domestic hot water tank is through the preheated water storage 
tank. The DHW tank capacity is 52 gallons and is an insulated tank with electric 
heater elements for auxiliary energy supply. 

Space heating is provided by an air circulation loop using air from collectors 
and/or the thermal storage unit including electric heating elements in a 
furnace/blower/heat pump combination system. 

When solar energy is insufficient, a liquid-to-air heat exchanger of a 2.5 ton heat 
pump and a three-stage electric heater in the air handling unit provides the 
necessary energy for space heating. 

The dwelling has been fully instrumented for monitoring solar system performance 
since February 1978. The data is compiled and integrated into the National Solar 
Data Network. 

Original cost estimates for provisioning and installation of the solar system are 
given in section VI of this report. However, the final solar system cost and the 
cost of its instrumentation are not included in this report. 



SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 




Figure lll-l. Site Plan 



Site Description. (See Figure III- 1 Site Plan) 

o Special topographic or climatic conditions - None 



o Latitude - 40°N 



o Longitude - 82 



o Altitude - 560 feet 

o Annual degree days (65 F base) 

o Heating - 6037 

o Data location - Canton, Ohio 

o Data reference - Local Climitological Data Annual 

Summaries for 1976 , Department of Commerce, National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 

o Average Insolation 

2 
o January - 450 Btu/ft day 

o July- 1 920 Btu/ft 2 day 

o Data location - Cleveland, Ohio 

o Data reference - ASHRAE System Handbook 
o Site topographic description - Flat 

o Shading - None 
Building Description 
o Occupancy 

o Single family detached 

o Family of four 

o Four bedrooms, living room, dining room, 2 1/2 bathrooms 
kitchen/dinette, family room, two car attached garage 
and partial basement 

o Total area - 3320 square feet 

o Conditioned floor area - 2460 square feet 

o Height - Two stories above ground (26 feet high) 



o Roof slope at collector - 37 (9/12 pitch) 

o Special features - Fireplace in family room 

Structure 

o Walls (Solar conditioned space) 

o Frame - Concrete block with wood framing 

o Exterior finish - Cedar siding 

o Interior finish - Gypsum wallboard 

o Windows 

Single glaze, double hung 

o Roof 

o Structural frame - Structural wood and plywood sheathing 

o Exterior finish - Asphalt shingle 

Mechanical System 

o Heating 

o Solar energy storage in a 740 cubic foot thermal 

rock storage bin, containing approximately 400 cu.ft. of rocks 

o Auxiliary source using heat pump with three stage 

electric heat furnace 

o Distribution - Hot air ducting between rock storage 

bin, auxiliary space heating system, and throughout 
conditioned area 

o Cooling (Non-solar) 

o Auxiliary - Heat pump air conditioner 

o Distribution - Utilizes hot air ducting 

o Domestic hot water 

o Daily water demand - 80 gallons 

o Solar - Heat exchanger in preheat ducting and an 80 

gallon storage tank 

o Auxiliary - 52 gallon hot water tank with electric 

elements 






IV. Solar System Description 

A. General Overview 

The Alpha Construction Company project (Grant No. H-8104) consists of four 
single-family dwellings, (SFD), in Canton, Ohio. Additional grant was awarded for 
installation of instrumentations in one of the dwellings. This report is a 
compilation of available data on the instrumented site and its solar system. 



COLLECTOR 
COL-1 



L00P-4 LOOP- S • 





DWM-1 
SN-8 



l 



^ 



COLLECTOR 



SUBSYSTEM 



STORAGE 






LOAD 



SUBSYSTEM "r SUBSYSTEM *i 



§> 



Figure IV-A- 1. General Overview 



The solar energy system in this house is an active air system with three air 
circulation loops (collector-to-storage, energy-to-load, and hot water preheat) and 
two water circulation loops (preheat and domestic hot water supply). The system 
is designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the space heating and 70 
percent of the hot water energy requirements for the home. It has an array of 
seventeen SEPCO EF-2 I 2 "Rom-Aire" flat plate collectors with a gross area of 
^32 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 37 degrees from the 
horizontal. Air is used as the medium for delivering solar energy from the 
collector array to storage. Solar energy is stored in a bin containing 
approximately 38,000 pounds of rock. The solar heated air, passing through a heat 
exchanger, also preheats incoming city water which is stored in an 80 gallon 
preheat storage tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 52 gallon 
domestic hot water (DHW) tank. When solar energy is insufficient, a liquid-to-air 
heat exchanger within a 2.5-ton heat pump and a three-stage electric heater in 
the air handling unit provide additional energy for space heating. An electric 
heating element in the 52 gallon DHW tank provides auxiliary energy for water 
heating. 

Solar System and Component Summary 

o Number of collector types - One 

o Number of circulation loops - Five 

o Number of thermal storage units - Two (rock storage and preheat 
water storage) 

o Number of operational modes - Four 

o Number of valves - One 

o Number of blowers - Three 

o Number of dampers - Four 

o Number of sensors - Eight 

Subsequent sections of this report describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, 
and the auxiliary subsystems. Specific details of the operating modes and controls 
are described in the final section. Figure IV-A-I is a system schematic diagram. 



B. Collector Subsystem (See Figure IV-B-I) 



COLLECTOR 
COL 




V) 



. - -Y. 



ysssw/ss/. 



■.:-.---sr*ssS. 



n 



'/-/■"<:. f v 



: /i 



,-•: 



■"■: 



. . "ji&sjvSS'S's/i, . 









',*--*--***.-.-.-,.--:-.■-■?,?.-/. 



,J t 



r,-A 



/ 

\ I y-'-'-'-' J 



erf< 



„„j,„ 



■::;y- 



*fSf***Sf. 



'SSSSSfS/. S^SSf*. 



;, 






,3. 



* 



COLLECTOR 



SUBSYSTEM 






i> 



Figure IV-B- I. Collector Subsystem 



The 432 square foot collector array is mounted at 37 degrees to the horizontal an 
an integral part of the roof structure. A pair of 260 square inch air ducts are 
installed in a vertical insulated chase, connecting the collectors to the basement 
thermal storage unit. Sensors located in the collector and the storage subsystems 
control various modes of the solar system operation. 



No freeze protection of the collector array was used since air is used as the heat 
transfer medium in this subsystem. 



pxa. unui*l 




\ce> 



puu, -it-M_t 





4 


\ot 








c 


) 




* 




< 


UT3 


> 






• 'CM 






• 

1* 




; 




** 


▲ 










101 




t/ v**.-~" 


^j-j 







10? VIEW 



I*' 



r i 



1 t 



Pco»^r vitvy 6ias view 




]£" IH5ULATY3M 






/^>Z 



&"• 1-0* 



)fe MMMIf 







~fis *ttui^.nan 



\0\ 



imucta mmu. »ow» 



</• i'-o" 



It", i *' 



II -mV 



*•• r-o' 



Figure IV-B-2. Solar Collector 



Collector (COL- 1) (See Figure IV-B-2) 

o Manufacturer - Solar Energy Products 

o Model Name/Number - SEPCO EF-2 I 2 "Rom-Aire" 

o Type - Air, flat plate 

o Location - Integral part of roof 

o Orientation - Due south 



o Tilt angle - 37 from the horizontal 

o Number of collector panels - Seventeen 

o Array configuration - One row of seventeen collectors 

o Collector enclosure 

o Material - Extruded aluminum frame, with 7/8 inch 

insulation on sides and back, single glass cover plate, 
and a corrugated collector plate 

o Gross area - 432 square feet 

o Net aperature area - 378 square feet 

o Net absorber area - 396 square feet 

o Weight 

Empty panel - 60 pounds 

Full panel - 60 pounds 

Filled array and support structure - 1,080 pounds 
o Panel length - 146.8 inches 

o Panel width - 25.1 inches 

o Frame depth - 3.3 inches 
o Standoff height - 3 inches 

o Shading - 1% of aperature area, (max.) 

o Cover Plates 

o Number of cover plates - One 

o Manufacturer - ASG Industries 

o Product Name/Number - Low Iron, Tempered Glass 

o Material - Low iron tempered glass 

o Thickness -0.125 inches 



II 



o Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region) 

Transmittance 89% 89% 

Reflectance 8% 8% 

Emittance 93% 93% 

o Edge or surface treatment - Polished, mechanical 

o Coating on cover plate material - None 

Absorber 

o Manufacturer - Solar Energy Products co. 

o Model Name/Number - Corrugated Aluminum Plate 

o Material - Aluminum 

Thickness - 0.018 inches 
Length - 143.125 inches 
Width - 22.175 inches 

o Coating 

Manufacturer - Sherwin Williams Paint 
Model Name/Number - Dull black //F65B50 
Material - Flat black alkyd enamel paint 

o Coating properties (solar region) (infrared region) 

Absorptance 96% 88% 

Reflectance 4% 12% 

Emittance 
Method of application - Baked on 

o Heat transfer fluid passages 

Location - Beneath absorber 

Pattern - Parallel 

Material - Aluminum and insulation 



12 



Internal diameter - 1.5 inches (equivalent) 
Maximum operating temperature - 310 F 
Internal protective coating - Polyisocyanurate 

Insulation 

o Manufacturer - Celotex 

o Product Name/Number - Thermax sheathing TF6I0 

o Material - Isocyanurate 

o Thermal resistance - R-8 

o Location - 7/8 inch thickness on the sides and back 

of the collector 

Sealant 

o Manufacturer - General Electric (GE) 

o Product Name/Number - Silicone, 1200 series 

o Location - Inner cover, outer cover, frame joint, 

backing plate and penetrations 

Frame 

o Manufacturer - Norandex Corp. 

o Product Name/Number - Extrusion 

o Material - Aluminum, T5-6063 

o Protective coating - Anodized/painted 

o Standoff used - Yes 

o Number of structural attach points - 4 

o Built-in collector 

Frame is not part of the load supporting structure 

Other information 

o Reflectors in collector assembly - None 

o Dessicant used - None 

o Freeze protection - None, air system 



13 



o Overheat protection -Air cooling 

Collector performance 

o Method of evaluation - ASHRAE (t.-t )/L 

i at 

o y intercept -.82° F hr ft 2 /Btu 

o Slope - 1.44 

o Point number 12 3 4 

o n = collector thermal efficiency (%) - 78 73.2 55.3 34.8 

o t. = collector inlet temperature (°F) - 90 107 137 185 

o t = abmient air temperature ( F) - 79 81 86 84 

o I = insolation intensity (Btu/hr ft 2 ) - 252 390 278 292 

o ASHRAE (t.-t )/l. - 0.04 0.09 0.18 0.35 

i a t 

o Test flow rate - 120 cfm 

o U, (total heat loss coefficient) - 1.5 Btu/hr ft F 

o Test wind speed - 4 mph 

o Test collector area 

o Gross - 24.0 square feet 

o Net - 2 1 .0 square feet 
o Thermal response time constant - 4.5 minutes 

o Incidence angle modifier 

o 45°- 0.94 

o 60°- 0.85 

o 75°- 0.57 
o Fluid specific heat - 0.24 Btu/lb F 

o Test fluid medium - Air, 100% 

Air Circulation Loop No. I (COL- I to TSU-I) 

o Design maximum operating conditions 

o Temperature- 170 F 



14 






o Pressure- I.I inches of water 
o Flow rate -Maximum 1500 cfm 
o Blower speed 

o Maximum - 2750 rpm 

o Minimum - 2650 rpm 

o Ducting 

o Location - Above grade, inside building 

o Exterior finish - None 

o Type - Galvanized steel 

o Joint type - Clamped 

o Internal insulation 

Type - Glass fiber 
Thermal resistance - R-17 

o Internal finish - None 

o Maximum rated operating conditions 

Temperatuer - 170 F 
Pressure- LI inches of water 
o Loop description - Collector-to-storage (Col- 1 toTSU-l) 

o Blower (BL- I) 

o Model Name/Number - LAU DD 9-7A 

o Fan type - Squirrel cage 

o Motor size - .5 hp; 120 volts; I phase; 60 Hz 

o Maximum motor speed - 2750 rpm 

o Drive - Direct 

o Blower speed - Single 



o Impeller speed - 2750 rpm 

o Circulation volume - 1500 cfm 

o Motor size - .5 bhp 

o Damper (D-l) 

o Function - Flow switching 

o Type - Multi louver 

o Operation - Automatic, motorized 

o Blade edges - Neoprene 

o Blade/frame contact - Neoprene 
Control Mode Selector (CMS- 1) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company Inc. 

o Model Name/Number - TC- 1 0-5- 1 50 

o Modes controlled - Collector-to-storage 

o ON - (SN-0 1 ) greater than (SN-02) + I 7° F 

o OFF - (SN-02) greater than 150° F 

o Sensor (SN-0 1 ) and (SN-02) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company 

o Product Name/Number - TC- 1 0- 1 7- 1 50 

o Type - Temperature, resistance thermometer 



16 



C. Storage Subsystem (See Figure IV-C-I) 




^••^•••••••X */ 4 



Y*w 



fSfSSSSs'/. //////// 



Kl 






STORAGE 



SUBSYSTEM 






p, 



Figure IV-C- I . Storage Subsystem 



Solar energy from the collector array is transfered and stored in a bin containing 
approximately 38,000 pounds of crushed rock, using air as the transfer medium. 
The solar heated air, passing through an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, also 
preheats incoming domestic water which is stored in an 80 gallon preheat storage 
tank. City water is supplied, on demand, to the preheat storage tank. A 52 gallon 
domestic hot water tank, supplied by the preheated water storage tank, provides 
the hot water supply for the house. 



Air Thermal Storage Unit (TSU- I ) 
o Container 

o Manufacturer - Site built 

o Total storage volume - 740 cubic feet 

o Storage size 

Length - 13.0 feet 

Width - I 1.3 feet 

Height - 5.0 feet 
o Volume to storage medium - 400 cubic feet 
o Design operating temperature - 170° F 

o Storage medium 

o Design operating temperatures 

Maximum - I 70 F 

Minimum - 70 F 
o Material - Crushed rock 

o Weight per cubic foot - 95 pounds 

o Total weight of storage medium - 40,000 pounds 

o Rock size - 1 .0 to 1.5 inches 

o Specific heat of solid material - .24 Btu/lb °F 

o Heat capacity of packed material - 22.8 Btu/ft F 

o Heat exchanger in container - None 

o Design pressure drop inlet/outlet - 5 inches of water 

o Container construction 

o Top 

Area - 143 square feet 

Exterior finish -2x10 and plywood deck, asphalt 
and one inch styrofoam R-14 



18 



Thickness - 6 inches 

Thermal resistance - R-30 
Side one 

Area - 66 square feet 

Exterior finish - Concrete and styrofoam 

Thickness - 4 inches 

Thermal resistance - R-20 
Side two 

Area - 78 square feet 

Exterior finish - Concrete, asphalt, and styrofoam 

Thickness - 4 inches 

Thermal resistance - R-20 
Side three 

Area - 66 square feet 

Temperature exposure - Indoors 

Exterior finish - Concrete, asphalt and styrofoam 

Thickness - 4 inches 

Thermal resistance - R-20 
Side four 

Area - 78 square feet 

Temperature exposure - Indoors 

Exterior finish - Concrete, asphalt and styrofoam 

Thickness - 4 inches 

Thermal resistance - R-20 



19 



o Bottom 

Area - 143 square feet 

Temperature exposure - Ground 

Exterior finish - 3 inches concrete, asphalt and 
styrofoam 

Thickness - 4 inches 

Thermal resistance - R-20 

o Location - In basement with two sides and bottom against 

the ground 

o Filters - None 

Liquid Thermal Storage Unit (TSU-2) 

o Container 

o Manufacturer - F.E. Meyers 

o Model Name/Number - V-82-G 

o Total storage container volume - 24.45 cubic feet 

o Size 

Length - 5.0 feet 

Diameter - 2.5 feet 
o Maximum rated operating conditions 

Temperature- 170 F 

Pressure - 60 psi 
o Storage medium 

o Design operating temperatures 

Maximum - I 70° F 

Minimum - 50 F 
o Material - Water, 100% 

o Specific heat - 1 .00 Btu/lb °F 
o Density - 62.5 lb/ft 3 



20 









o 



Heat capacity at 70° F - 62.5 Btu/ft 3 / °F 



o Boiling point - 2 12 F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Recommended use temperature 

Maximum - 190° F 

Minimum - 50° F 
o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Inhibitor - None 

o Container construction 

o Type - Galvanized steel tank, glass lining 

o Overall thermal resistance - R-17 

o Location - Basement 

o Filters - None 

o Design pressure drop between inlet/outlet 

Air side - I inch of water 

Liquid side - 2 inches of water 
Air Circulation Loop No. 3 (TSU-I to HX-I) 
o Loop design conditions 

o Maximum design operating temperature - 190 F 

o Design air flow - 250 cfm 

o Blower speed - 2750 maximum rpm, 2650 minimum rpm 
o Ducting 

o Location - Above grade, inside building 

o Type - Galvanized steel 

o Joint type - Clamped 

o Internal duct insulation - Glass fiber 

o Thermal resistance - R-17 

21 



o Blower (BL-3) 

o Maximum motor speed - 2750 rpm 

o Drive - Direct 

o Circulation volume - 250 cfm 
o Heat exchanger (HX- I ) 

o Type of flow - Cross 

o Heat exchanger design - Fin coil 

o Convection 

Air side - Forced 
Liquid side - Forced 

o Maximum rated temperature - 190° F 

o Material types - Combination of metals 

o Design flow quantity 

Air side - 250 cfm 
Liquid side - 12 gal/min 

o Circulator 

Air side - Blower (BL-3) 

Liquid side - Pump (P- 1) 

Liquid Circulation Loop No. 4 (HX-I to TSU-2) 

o Maximum design operating conditions 

o Temperature- 190 F 

o Pressure - 60 psi 

o Heating 

o Design liquid flow 

Maximum- 12 gal/min 
Minimum- 10 gal/min 



22 



o Design pump speed 

1750 rpm, maximum 

1700 rpm, minimum 
Heat transfer medium 
o Volume of liquid in loop - 32 gallons 
o Anticipated liquid temperature 

Maximum - I 70° F 

Minimum - 50 F 
o Provisions for expansion - None 

o Medium- 100% water 

o Specific heat - 1.00 Btu/lb/°F 

o Density - 62.5 lb/ft 3 
o Boiling point - 21 2 F 
o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Recommended use temperatures 

Maximum - I 90° F 

Minimum - 50° F 
o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Inhibitor - None 

Piping 

o Location - Above grade in basement 

o Exterior finish - Natural copper 

o Insulation - None 

o Rigid - Copper, standard .50 inch 

o Coupling reinforcing - Solder 

o Coupling connection - Standard solder 



23 



o Piping connection - Standard solder 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Temperature- I 90° F 

Pressure - 60 psi 
Circulation pump (P-l) 
o Manufacturer - Grundfos 

o Model Name/Number - UP 25-420 F 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum rated operating conditions 

Static pressure - 150 psi 

Dynamic pressure - 5 psi 

Temperature - 230° F 
o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid 

Steel, type 316 stainless 
o Motor size - .05 hp, I 15 volts, I phase, 60 Hz 

o Maximum motor speed - 1725 rpm 

o Drive - Direct 

o Speed - Single 

o Pump speed - I 750 rpm 

o Circulating volume 

Low head mode - 20 gal/min 

High head mode - 5 gal/min 
o Operating head (dynamic) 

Low head mode - 1.3 psi 

High head mode - 5.2 psi 
o Motor operation - 1 .05 bhp 



2k 



o Distribution Valve (V-l) 

o Function - ON - OFF 

o Operation - Automatic motorized 

o Type - Gate 

o Maximum rated operating conditions 

Pressure - 150 psi 

Temperature - 220 F 

o Material - Copper 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-3) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company Inc. 

o Model Name/Number - TC- 1 0-5- 1 50 

o Modes Controlled - Air thermal storage-to-liquid thermal 

storage (TSU- 1 to TSU-2) 

o ON - (SN-03) greater than (SN-04) + I 7° F 

o OFF - (SN-04) greater than 135° F 

o Sensors (SN-03) and (SN-04) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company Inc. 

o Product Name/Number - TC- 1 0- 1 7-5- 1 50 

o Type - Temperature, resistance thermometer 



25 



D. Solar Energy-To-Load Subsystem (Figure IV-D-I) 




£ 






LOAD 



SUBSYSTEM 



§> 



Figure IV-D-I. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 



Solar energy stored in the 740 cubic foot storage tank filled with approximately 
38,000 lbs of crushed rock is used to meet the space heating demands by 
circulating it through the air distribution system. Auxiliary space heating, 
supplementing this source, is provided by electrical elements in the 82 gallon 
storage tank. Space cooling is provided by an air circulating loop using air from 
collectors and/or thermal storage unit, including electric heating elements in a 
furnace/blower/heat pump combination system. 



26 



Air Circulation Loop No. 2 (TSU-I to Space Heating) 
o Maximum design operating conditions 

o Temperature- 190 F 

o Pressure - I.I inches of water 

o Design flow rate 
o Air flow 

1000 cfm, maximum 

720 cfm, minimum 
o Blower speed 

2750 rpm, maximum 

2650 rpm, minimum 
o Ducting 

o Location - Above grade, inside building 

o Type - Steel, galvanized 

o Ducting joints - Clamped 

o Internal insulation - Glass fiber 

o Thermal resistance value - R-17 

o Rated operating condition 

Temperature, 170 F, maximum 

Pressure, I.I inches of water, maximum 
o Damper (D-l) 

o Function - Flow switching 

o Type - Multi-louver 

o Operation - Automatic, motorized 

o Blade edges - Neoprene 

o Blade/frame contact - Neoprene 



27 



o Blower (BL-2) 

o Manufacturer - General Electric 

o Model Name/Number - Weathertron 

o Motor size - 0.33 hp; 120 volts; I phase; 60 Hz 

o Circulating volume 

Low static mode - 750 cfm 

High static mode - 720 cfm 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-4) 

o Modes controlled 

o Air thermal storage-to-Space 

ON - (SN-05) greater than 80° F 

o Storage-to-Auxiliary-to-Space 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) greater than 26° F 

o First stage auxiliary heat (5.76 kw) 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) less than 26° F and 
greater than 5 F 

o Second stage auxiliary heat (9.56 kw) 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) greater than -10° F 
and less than 5 F 

o Third stage auxiliary heat (15.3 kw) 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) less than -10° F 

o Sensors (SN-05), (SN-06) and (SN-07) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company Inc. 

o Product Name/Number - TC- 1 0- I 7-5- 1 50 

o Type - Temperature, resistance thermometer 



28 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. 5 (TSU-2 to DWH-I to Load) 
o Flow rate 

o Heating design flow - Hot water demand 
o Heat transfer medium 

o Volume of liquid in loop approximately 53 gallons 
o Anticipated liquid temperatures 

Maximum - I 70° F 
Minimum - 50 F 
o Medium - 100% water 

o Chemical feeder - None 
o Inhibitor - None 

o Piping 

o Type - Rigid 

o Material - Cooper 
o Insulation - None 

o Location - Above grade, inside building 

o Coupling - Solder 
o Maximum operating condition 

Temperature, I90°F 
Pressure, 60 psi 



29 



E. Auxiliary Energy Subsystem 




.ffl/.wssSf'sA 



'SfSS.-SS.'fSfS 



JJHCAT PUVH 
»U* EH 



. J. •. . 
- '/ '. 



2k 



>t- 



w 



SUPPLY 
AIR 



LOOP- S -r- 



<r/S- f,/SS'W/~ ~ f ~ 



'■'/',/SSffSfSS/''SJ'J, .... 




£ 






LOAD ^ 



SUBSYSTEM 



Figure IV-E-I. Auxiliary-to-Load Subsystem 



The auxiliary subsystems, domestic hot water, tank, furnace/blower/heat pump 
combination mentioned in the foregoing Energy to Load Subsystem have been 
grouped in this section for descriptive purposes, their function and purpose have 
been previously described. 



30 






Furnace (FURN- 1) 

o Manufacturer - General Electric 

o Model Name/Number - Weathertron heat pump 

o Energy source - Electric, 240 volts, I phase, 60 Hz 

o Energy output - 47,800 Btu/hr 

o Energy input - 47,800 Btu/hr 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-4) 

o Modes controlled 

o Air thermal storage-to-Space 

ON - (SN-05) greater than 80° F 

o Storage-to-Auxiliary-to-Space 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) greater than 26° F 

o First stage auxiliary heat (5.76 kw) 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) less than 26° F and 
greater than 5 F 

o Second stage auxiliary heat (9.56 kw) 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) greater than -10° F 
and less than 5 F 

o Third stage auxiliary heat (15.3 kw) 

ON - (SN-05) less than 80° F and 
(SN-06) less than -10° F 

o Sensors (SN-05), (SN-06) and (SN-07) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company Inc. 

o Product Name/Number - TC- 1 0- 1 7-5- 1 50 

o Type - Temperature, resistance thermometer 



31 



Domestic Hot Water Heater (DHW-I) 

o Manufacturer - Rheem Glas 

o Energy source - Electric, 240 volts, I phase, 60 Hz 

o Tank volume - 51 gallons 

o Water volume - 52 gallons 

o Energy input - 15,345 Btu/hr 

o Energy output - 15,345 Btu/hr 

o Maximum pressure - 150 psi 

o Maximum temperature - 200 F 

o Heating stages - Single 

o Maximum recovery rate - 30 gallons per hour 

o Yearly average cold water inlet temperature - 53 F 

o Design Water output temperature - I 20 F 

o Corrosion protection anodes - Magnesium 

Control Mode Selector (CMS-2) 

o Manufacturer - Dan Mar Company, Inc. 

o Model Name/Number - TC- 1 0-5- 1 50 

o Modes controlled 

o Auxiliary heat-to-domestic hot water 

ON - (SN-08) less than I 20° F 

o Sensors (SN-08) 

o Type - Thermostat 



32 



F. Modes of Operation 




<k 



COLLECTOR 



SUBSYSTEM 



STORAGE 



SUBSYSTEM 



LOAD _<J 



SUBSYSTEMS 



Figure IV-F- 1. Controls Diagram 



The Alpha Construction Company's solar system is shown on figure IV-F- I. The 
system consists of four basic subsystems, namely Collector Subsystem, Storage 
Subsystem, Energy to Load, and finally Auxiliary Subsystems. 

The system is designed to provide 50 percent of the space heating and 70 percent 
of the hot water energy requirements for the home. The Collector subsystem 
utilizes a blower for the transfer of energy to the storage, utilizing air as the 



33 



transfer medium. The stored energy, passing through a heat exchanger also 
preheats the incoming city water using a liquid storage tank as the preheated 
storage. 

When solar energy is insufficient, a liquid-to-air heat exchanger within a 2.5 ton 
heat pump and a three stage electric heater in the air handling unit provide 
auxiliary energy for SDace heating. 

Also, part of the Auxiliary subsystem, is an electric heating element in the DHW 
tank which provides the supplementary energy for the domestic hot water. 

Operation of the solar system in conjunction with the auxiliary subsystems may 
involve one or more of the six modes of operations described below. 

Mode I - Collector to Space Heating 

This mode exists when the collector is operating, and the plenum temperature at 
the top of storage is greater than a minimum value suitable for heating the house. 
The plenum temperature is defined as the temperature in the air space above the 
rocks inside the storage chamber. Heated air is circulated through the house by 
the air handling unit before being returned to the collector. During this mode the 
following conditions are met: a) The collector blower operating, b) the temp- 
erature at the top of the rock storage is greater than 80 F, c) the house 
thermostat is calling for heat, d) dampers Dl and D2 are open, and e) damper D3 
is closed and the condition results in flow from collector to the house. 

Mode 2 - Collector to Storage 

This mode exists when the collector is operating and either there is no demand for 
space heating or the plenum temperature at the top of storage is below a 
minimum value suitable for heating the house. If the conditions are satisfied for 
the collector blower to turn on, and either the house thermostat is not calling for 
heat or the temperature at the top of the rock storage box is less than 80 F 
required for space heating, then dampers Dl and D2 will close, resulting in flow 
circulating through collector and storage tank. 



34 



Mode 3 - Storage to Space Heating 

This mode exists when there is a demand for space heating, the collectors are not 
operating, and the plenum temperature at the top of storage is above a minimum 
value suitable for heating the house. The fan in the air handling unit draws air 
from the storage and circulates it through the house and back to the storage 
system. Conditions at this mode are: a) Collector blower not operating, b) the 
temperature at the top of rock storage is greater than 80 F, c) the house 
thermostat is calling for heat, d) dampers Dl and D2 are open, e) damper D3 is 
closed and finally f) flow is from the storage to house. 

Mode 4 - Auxiliary Heat to Space Heating 

If the house thermostat is calling for heat, and the temperature at the top of the 
rock storage is less than 80 F, the heat pump will turn on. Dampers Dl and D2 
will close, damper D3 will open, resulting in flow circulating from the air handler 
to the house, bypassing the rock storage box. If the outside ambient temperature 
falls below 26 F, the first stage of electrical resistance heaters will operate 
along with the heat pump. If the outside ambient temperature falls below 5 F, 
the second stage of electrical heaters will turn on in addition to the first stage. 
When the outside ambient temperature falls below -10 F, all three stages of 
electrical heaters will operate in addition to the heat pump. 

Mode 5 - Domestic Water Preheat 



This mode exists when the temperature of the preheat water tank is less than 135 
degrees and the temperature in the hot air plenum of storage is at least 17 F 
greater than the temperature of the preheat tank. At this condition, the hot 
water loop blower and the circulating pump of the preheat tank will turn on. 



35 



Mode 6 - Auxiliary Heat to Domestic Hot Water 

This mode exists when the temperature of the domestic hot water tank is below 
I 20 degrees. 

Mode 7 - Air-Conditioning 

When the air conditioning unit is activated by means of its control setting, the 
dampers Dl and D2 will close, damper D3 open and conditioned air flows through 
the heat pump and circulates through the house. 



36 



V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 

A. The National Solar Data Network 

The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A-l) has been developed for the 
Department of Energy to process data collected from specific residential demon- 
stration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data 
flow in the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports 
describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems. 

The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site 
is part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of 
the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in 
calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar 
system (see NBSIR 76-1 137), National Bureau of Standards. Additional instrumen- 
tation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically, 
the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following: 

o Total insolation in the plane of the collector array 

o Ambient temperature 

o Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage temperature 

o Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Auxiliary fuel flow rates 

Site data are recorded automatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data 
Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the 
Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The 
communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade 
telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the 
SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are time- 
tagged correctly. 



37 




o 

? 



o 



o 

CO 

"5 

c 
o 






I 

< 

> 

V 

k_ 

3 

en 



38 







</» 


<s> 




UJ 


H 




_l 


cc 




LL 


? 




< 


UJ 




H 


cr 




< 




o 

Z 

a 

-t— 
o 
Q 



o 

CO 

"a 

c 
o 

o 
Z 
<u 



o 

O 

-t- 
o 

a 



I 

< 

I 
> 

0) 
i_ 

D 

en 



39 



I i 



<5 

12 



UJ -j _ 

IM < 

ill 

3! 



a. < 

Jul I 



mmrvJ 
_ s ° X 

t 




•hji — 



^2*5^ 



\\\\\\\\w\^ 






3 

»- a: 
uj _ 

E < 






*2 3 

1 W 01 ^ 



\\W\W: 




8 
J 

8 

I 



1 

8 
P 



$ 



C 
O 

o 

Q 

c 



o 

c 
<u 
en 



I 

> 

u 

3 

en 



40 



The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent 
transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code 
transmitted by the SDAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications 
Processor and processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes 
measurement checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they 
are not beyond the known instrument limits and that they are not erratic. Data 
which appear questionable are discarded and are not used in the solar system 
preformance analyses. 

Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired 
performance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration 
site. A performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the 
quantity of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a 
component. All valid data are processed using these performance factor 
equations to generate hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factors 
are integrated into daily and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, 
and monthly performance factors are stored in data files in the CDP5. These data 
files also include measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and 
textual site identification; and specific site data used in generating the 
performance factors. 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 

The on-site instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of 
the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that 
stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A- 1 and V-A-2). 
Specific information for temperature, flow, power and miscellaneous sensors are 
presented in tabular form. Sensor locations are shown in figure V-B-l. 



VI. COST DATA 

A. General 

The following cost data depicts only solar energy portion of the 
construction. Cost of instrumentation is not included since it is not part of 
the construction effort. 

B. Construction Grant Funds 



Solar Sub-System 



Applicants Request 



Construction Grant 



Lot 



// 127 // I 16 // 120 // I 12 



Collectors 

Storage Energy 

Distribution & 
Controls 

Installation 



4,397 3,737 3,737 5,276 

880 860 860 1,000 

3,655 3,545 3,545 3,905 

(Included in above items) 



Sub Total 



8,932 8,142 8,142 10,181 



Additional Cost to complete-approximately 10% 
(based on Site Interview) 

Total (Final Estimated Cost) 



$35,397 
3,540 

$38,937 



C. Construction Period: June 77 through October 77 



42 



o Estimated Cost of Instrumented Houses (Lot I 16) 

Solar equipment $ 6,560 

Install air duct system 1,796 

Install hot water converter 404 

Install solar panes/storage bin 860 

Install insulation on ducts & bin 340 

Instrument design and administration I ,200 

Instrument install 2,143 

TOTAL $11,445 



43 



Vli. APPENDIX 
A. Glossary 

ABSORBER PLATE - The surface in a flat plate collector that absorbs incident 

solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid. 

ABSORPTANCE - The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident 

radiation on that surface. 

ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM - The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air 

by an absorption process. 

ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system, consisting of 

collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or 

preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner. 

AIR-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which air is 

the heat transfer fluid. 

AIR CONDITIONING - The process of treating indoor air by controlling the 

temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the 

occupants in the conditioned space. 

AMBIENT AIR - A term for outdoor air, and may be brought into a building to be 

conditioned or circulated. 

ANTI-FREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 

uses additives or solutions to the heat transfer medium, which depresses its 

freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in the solar collectors 

and the exterior piping. 

AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM - The equipment, utilizing conventional energy 

sources, used to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and used 

to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable. 

BACKFLOW - The reversal of flow in a distribution system. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTOR - A device or means to stop backf low. 

BEAM RADIATION - Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be 

concentrated. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) - A unit of energy that is required to heat one 

pound of water from 59 F to 60 F. 

BUILDING ENVELOPE - The exterior surface of a building that encloses the 

conditioned space. 



44 



CLIMATE - The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic 

region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. 

COLLECTOR MANIFOLD - The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a 

collector plate. 

COLLECTOR PLATE - A term used for an absorber plate. 

COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM - The assembly that absorbes solar radiation and 

transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. 

COMBINED COLLECTORS - An assembly that both collects solar radiation and 

stores the thermal energy in the same unit. 

CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR - A solar collector which focuses beam 

radiation onto an absorber in order to obtain higher energy fluxes than can 

normally be achieved by flat plate solar collectors. 

CONCENTRATOR - A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing 

insolation onto an absorber. 

CONDITIONED SPACE - The space in a building where the air is conditioned by 

heating or cooling. 

CONTROL SUBSYSTEM - The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic 

actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the 

auxiliary energy subsystems. 

COOLING TOWER - A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an 

absorption cooling system to ambient air. 

DIFFUSE RADIATION - Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, 

or other substances suspended in the air. 

DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 

prevents potential water freeze-up within the collector and exterior piping by 

automatically draining and replacing the water with a non-freezing medium such as 

air, nitrogen, etc. 

DUCT HEATING COIL - A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution 

system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid through a coil in the air system. 

EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS - The seasonal cooling load for a 

building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system 

will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load. 

EMITTANCE - The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a 

black body at the same temperature. 

EXPANSION TANK - A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is 

heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components. 



45 



FIXED COLLECTOR - A solar collector that is permanently oriented towards the 

sun and cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. 

FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR - A basic heat collection device used in solar heating 

systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and 

covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing 

aids in a flat plate collector. 

FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A solar collector using a parabolic mirror, fresnel lens, 

or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber. 

FRESNEL COLLECTOR - A concentrating solar collector which uses a fresnel lens 

to focus beam radiation onto an absorber. 

GLAZING - The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy 

losses from the top of the collector. 

HEAT TRANSFER FLUID - The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar 

collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. 

INCIDENCE ANGLE - The angle in which the insolation strikes a surface and the 

normal for that surface. 

INSOLATION - The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of 

time. 

LAMINATED GLASS - A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded 

together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. 

2 
LANGLEY - The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm , (I 

Langley = 3.69 Btu/ft 2 ). 

LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which 

either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. 

LOAD - The total space conditioning or domestic water heating reguirements that 

are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem. 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION - The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to 

the sky at night. 

NO-FLOW CONDITION - The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not 

flowing through the collector array due to a shutdown or a malfunction. 

OPAQUE - A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either 

reflected or absorbed. 

OUTGASSING - The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during 

exposure to elevated temperature, or reduced pressure. 



46 



PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT - A factory-made assembly consisting of an 
indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space 
cooling operations. This unit may also include additional components to heat the 
condition space. 

PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A concentrating collector which focuses 
beam radiation by a parabolic reflector. 

PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system that can provide for 
space heating needs without the use of any other energy source other than the sun. 
REFLECTANCE - The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total 
incident radiation on the surface. 

REFLECTED RADIATION - Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as 
the ground, and is incident on the solar collector. 

ROCK BED - A storage tank using uniform-sized rocks to store solar energy in air- 
based solar collector systems. 

SELECTIVE SURFACE - A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation 
and a low emittance for thermal radiation. 

SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE - The area in a building that depends on solar 
energy to provide for a fraction of the heating and cooling needs. 
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM - An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar 
energy-to-load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into 
thermal energy for space heating requirements, as well as the addition of an 
auxiliary backup system. 

SOLAR RETROFIT - The addition of a solar energy system to an existing structure. 
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM - The components used to store solar energy so that the 
stored energy can be used for heating, cooling, or heating water during periods of 
low insolation. 

STRATIFICATION - The horizontal layering in a medium due to temperature 
differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water. 
THERMOSTAT - A temperature sensing device which controls the heating and 
cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater. 

TILT ANGLE FROM HORIZONTAL - Angle between the horizontal plane and the 
plane of collector. 

TON OF REFRIGERATION - A unit of refrigeration which is equivalent to 12,000 
Btu/hr. 

TRACKING COLLECTOR - A set of solar energy tracking collectors that 
automatically move in order to constantly aim towards the sun. 



47 



VAPOR BARRIER - A material which is used to reduce the transmission ot water 

vapor. 

ZONE - A portion of a conditioned space which use a common control because of 

their similar heating and cooling requirements. 



48 



B. Legend for Solar System Schematics 



VALVES 



PIPING SPECIALITIES 




r- 

-A — 



T" 



■M- 



-1^ 



-IF 



-GV 



GATE VALVE 
CHECK VALVE 
BALANCING VALVE 

GLOBE VALVE 
BALL VALVE 
PLUG VALVE 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 
VACUUM BREAKER 
RELIEF OR SAFETY 
PRESSURE REDUCING 

ANGLE GATE VALVE 

ANGLE GLOVE VALVE 
CONTROL VALVE, 2 WAY 

CONTROL VALVE, 3 WAY 
BUTTERFLY VALVE 




4 WAY VALVE 
FITTINGS 



-® 



DIRECTION OF FLOW 

CAP 

REDUCER, CONCENTRIC 

REDUCER, ECCENTRIC 

TEE 

UNION 

FLANGED CONNECTION 

CONNECTION, BOTTOM 

CONNECTION, TOP 
ELBOW, TURNED UP 

ELBOW, TURNED DOWN 
TEE, OUTLET UP 

TEE, OUTLET DOWN 



■a- 



,EJ 



— CZX2— 

— ^f^— 

P FS 
P PS 



■Kyf 



3= 



i 



IF- 



CW>- 



AS 

EXPTK 
WS 
HED 



AUTOMATIC AIR VENT 
MANUAL AIR VENT 
ALIGNMENT GUIDE 

ANCHOR 
BALL JOINT 

EXPANSION JOINT 
EXPANSION LOOP 
FLEXIBLE CONNECTION 
FLOWMETER FITTING 
FLOW SWITCH 

PRESSURE SWITCH 

PRESSURE GAUGE 
PUMP 

PIPE SLOPE 

STRAINER 

STRAINER, W/BLOW OFF 

TRAP 

CONTROL SENSOR 

INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR 

THERMOMETER 
THERMOMETER WELL ONLY 

COLD WATER SUPPLY 

BLOWER 

AIR SEPARATOR 

EXPANSION TANK 

WATER SOFTENER 

HOSE END DRAIN 



49 



UNIVERSITY OF FLOmDA 

3 1262 "09052 6202